Until recently, 6-year-old Billie had no apparent health problems. About 1 week ago, she started to lose weight despite a healthy appetite. She urinated frequently and complained of being tired. Her mom noticed that she was very thirsty and was getting up in the middle of the night to urinate. On examination, her blood sugar was elevated. She was is not overweight or obese.
What is the name of the disease that Billie has? Be very specific.
|a) Type I Diabetes Mellitus|
|b) Types II Diabetes Mellitus|
|c) Diabetes Insipidus|
|d) Both a) and b)|
Explain the physiology of this disease, what’s going wrong? Explain down to the cellular level. Describe what happens in a healthy individual and what goes wrong in the diseased individual. Be specific.
The glucose in the bloodstream becomes hyper-concentrated. When the blood has high levels of glucose, the kidneys fail to absorb glucose from the water and back to the body cells. Under normal conditions, almost all glucose is extracted from the urine. Because of the failure of kidneys to reabsorb glucose, osmotic pressure builds up. With time the pressure becomes so high that water cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Explain why Billie has the following symptoms: (1) weight loss, (2) frequent urination, (3) fatigue, (4) excessive thirst.
Because of the high osmotic pressure which is developed between the bloodstream and water which is excreted as urine is very large that water cannot be reabsorbed to the bloodstream. This causes frequent urination due to large amounts of water being excreted. Also this causes thirst as the blood has no enough water due to dehydration. Fatigue is caused by high or low sugar levels in the body. Due to the body not producing hormone insulin which is needed for the use of sugar, the glucose from the food a person takes does not get absorbed in the bloodstream well meaning this will lead to loss of weight due to lack of nutrients for the cells
Which 2 indicators would a urinalysis find to confirm the diagnosis? Explain physiologically why they are found in the urine.
glucose and ketones and also proteins. It is important to to test for these to confirm the functioning of the kidneys. Glucose is not reabsorbed to the bloodstream so it is excreted in urine. Also ketones are formed due to the breaking down of fats. If the body cells cannot get enough glucose, they switch metabolism to use of fats and this happens in the liver. this is why there are high levels of ketones in the bloodstream
What are some potential causes of this disease? Explain.
One potential cause of diabetes is the failure of the body to produce insulin. If the beta pancreatic cells which produce insulin are destroyed, then this leads to the disorder of diabetes where the metabolism of the body is not normal.